The “racial intelligence” bulldozer that James Watson set rolling a couple of weeks back is still whirring in our backyards as the new row over superior Jewish IQ scores is begging media attention.
This time the perpetrator is the Bell Curve fame Charles Murray and his American Enterprise Institute. I am not going into much detail about it. You can read the whole thing here.
The book ‘Bell Curve’ by Charles Murray and Richard J. Herrnstein once had the fate of being the most celebrated and at the same time, the most shunned book dealing with sociology of intelligence. The book set the scene for serious debates on the way IQ tests were used as real measurements of peoples’ intelligence.
The consensus regarding the average intelligence of various races was popularized to be as follows: Ashkenazim Jews 115; East Asians 105; Whites 100; American Indians and most Hispanics 90; African Americans 85; and sub-Saharan Africans 70. By the same order, accumulation of wealth, the level of income, achieved academic success etc., were also popularized to follow closely with the average IQs of these six racial groupings.
What do we actually know about Intelligence Quotient?
The results of large studies and their meta-analyses can be filtered down to the following concrete points:
- IQ tests aspire to assess only 4 areas of human intelligence:
Verbal comprehension, Processing Speed, Working (arithmetic) memory and Perceptual organization (visuo-spacial).
- People who are good at one area of intelligence (defined by the test) tend to be good at other areas too (+ve correlation).
- IQ tests are always constrained by the cultural, linguistic, socio-economic and other contextual biases.
- IQ tests don’t assess attributes like
Creativity, Personality, Practical sense, Social sensitivity, Leadership and Altruism.
- IQ tests can be consistently and precisely interpreted only when the scores are very low or very high.
- General Intelligence or ‘g’, as measured by IQ scores, is an attribute of the psyche (the software), rather than any macroscopic characteristic of the brain (the hardware).
- IQ test scores are positively correlated to genetic make up as evident from large twin studies.
- The effects on IQ scores thought to be caused by the environmental factors tend to disappear as the test-takers enter adulthood and further into old age.
- Even then, there is no definitive evidence yet to link higher IQ test scores to brain size, or any particular genotype.
- Training for IQ tests can certainly improve IQ scores.
Genetic basis for intelligence
The animal Brain plays the role of just the hardware on which the software called “mind” runs. Stretching that metaphor a little points out that there need not be a one-to-one correspondence between the hardware and the software for every behavioral trait. And studies have only shown IQ to be genetically linked; they have NOT shown that intelligence is solely a genetic quality. Having the right environment is extremely essential for the full expression of such “intelligence” genes (if there are any).
The examples of higher average IQ scores in certain human races may hence be more cultural rather than biological. Cultures that pressurize their children to achieve more in academics tend to produce better IQ scores. Just like average human height has increased over generations due to better nutrition, expression of intelligence too can hopefully improve in encouraging environs.
Is intelligence an essential survival quality?
It may be difficult to swallow without salt but it’s true: Intelligence does not confer any significant evolutionary survival advantage to any species.
Survival in the natural world, in a reductionistic sense means advantage in numbers, disease-free & adaptable gene pool and flexibility with nature. Social achievement and academic profiles, which are direct correlates of high IQ scores, have nothing to do with gene propagation and adaptability, even though various human races emphasize on these aspects more and more after every generation.
If we extrapolate the selfish gene concept to the macro evolutionary scenario, we find that the mind, consciousness, intelligence and all the emergent behavioral patterns are just a few of the myriad ways of “selfish” genes to propagate themselves.
This “rule” becomes clearer when one steps further backwards and look at the picture of evolution of life on planet earth as a whole.